History Revision Notes CCEA

In the attached post are a set of revision notes for CCEA history course. This may be of use to you if your studying for exams. It covers all of Germany Part II and III, which are the parts I choose. They are concise and easy to read, and hopefully you will get a use for them.

History Revision


USSR Increasing Control Over Eastern Europe

Explain how and why the USSR increased its control over Eastern Europe between 1945 and 1949. [22]

There were many reasons why Stalin and the USSR wanted to control Eastern Europe. The first of these was to create a boundary or ‘buffer zone’. The USSR wanted to protect itself from the spread of capitalist ideas or further attack from Western countries. This ‘Iron Curtain’ as it would be later called by Churchill was going to be made up of Communist countries. Stalin’s idea was that Western countries would have to attack this buffer zone before being able to attack the USSR.

The USSR also wanted reparations for war damage and they would take these from countries they controlled. Eastern Europe was full of raw materials which could be used by Russia.

The USSR used different tactics when taking over Eastern European countries. Many times in elections the following cycle occurred- Pressure from Moscow would make sure Communists would obtain high positions in emergency Governments. Communists would then suggest radical changes which would ensure economic recovery and finally votes would be rigged making sure the Communists would win. An example of this is Hungary.

The USSR gained influence over Yugoslavia in a completely different way to this. Yugoslavia refused Russian takeover however they were still a Communist Government. This meant they were still viewed with the same suspicion from Western states. After WWII many Eastern States were still occupied by Soviet Soldiers. This means that the USSR has a major presence and easily influenced the decisions of emergency governments which were often weak.

The Marshall Plan was set up in 1947 which would ensure that European countries could develop economically and recover from the effects of WWII. This plan would inject $13.3 Billion into the European economy. Stalin condemned this and as a result set up Comecon and Cominform. Although the Marshall Plan itself was dangerous to the Russian regime, the resulting set-up of the counter organisations strengthened Russian control over the East and made sure they could develop like the West.

In 1948 all road, rail and canal links to West Berlin were closed. This was caused by the Western Alliance and New Currency introduced in this newly merged area. Stalin was angry at this as he thought this merger would again develop a Germany which could threaten the USSR.

Discontent arose from Eastern Germans seeing their Western counterparts get richer while they got poorer. It was decided that supplies would be airlifted into Berlin as Stalin was unlikely to shoot planes down. The plan had not expected to work and for long periods West Berliners had to endure rationing.

Stalin admitted defeat the next year and the Blockade was lifted. During this period NATO was set up. The USSR responded to this by setting up the Warsaw Pact. As with the Marshall Aid the Western Actions had caused a positive impact for the USSR. The Warsaw Pact meant that Soviet controlled states had more protection than before, making them stronger.


Cuban Missile Crisis

As part of CCEA History Unit 2 it is necessary to study the Cuban Missile Crisis which can either be asked as part of an essay or in the source question. I have included a document on how the Cuban Missile Crisis came about and which is based on the CCEA question-

Explain how and why the USA and USSR came close to Nuclear War over Cuba in 1962 and the consequences of the Crisis on relations between the two states.

            -Castro and his policies and attitude to the USA 1959 – Oct. 1962

            -Development of relations between Cuba and USSR, 1959 – Oct. 1962

            -Response of the USA and events of the 13 Days

            -Consequences of the crisis for USSR and USA

Cuban Missile Crisis

History- How the lives of Jews were affected

A major part of the CCEA History course are prose type questions and essays. In section A, there are four parts to each question, with four questions being answered in total. It is necessary to practice these types of questions many times before the exam.

How and why did the Nazis affect the lives of Jews between 1933 and 1939? [6]

The Nazis believed that the Jews were racially inferior to the Aryan race of Germany. They wanted a pure population and thought that to do this, they needed to exterminate all Jews. As Hitler wrote in Mein Kampf, he blamed the Jews for the loss of World War One and for the creation of the Treaty of Versailles. Along with this, he thought that Jews were greedy for money and were destroying the economy.

The Nazis used many different methods against the Jewish Population during the 1930’s. In April 1933, Hitler ordered a boycott of all Jewish businesses including shops which lasted one day. However, from this point forward many stopped using Jewish businesses and this caused many to close down. Hitler banned Jews from joining the Army and having a job in the Government. The Jewish people were forced to register all of their property which for the Nazis made it easier to confiscate. Later, more Jewish professionals were fired including teachers and doctors, dentists and lawyers were not allowed to work for German people. The most major action against the Jews was the introduction of the Nuremberg laws which banned marriage between Jews and Aryans as well as sexual relationships outside of marriage. This caused great division between the now, two separate races. Along with this, Jews were not allowed to be German citizens, which meant they lost all rights they had under the Nazis. Jewish people also has their identities taken away from them, with their names changed to Israel or Sarah and having their passports stamped with a J. In November 1938, Hitler ordered the most aggressive assault against the Jewish population up to this point. He ordered that all Jewish homes, shops, synagogues and businesses were destroyed. This caused thousands of Jews to be arrested and sent to concentration camps, while many were killed by rioters. This became known as the Night of Broken Glass or Kristallnacht, after which Jews were fined for the damage caused and were forced by the Police to clean the streets.